Yann Moulier Boutang, born in 1949, is a graduate from Ecole Normale Supérieure (Philosophy 1070). He is a professor of economics at University of Technology of Compiègne, France, where he teaches political economy, law economics of intellectual property rights. He is co-director of the Costech Laboratory (Knowledge, Organization and Technical Systems) in the same University. Since fall 2007, he teaches culture and digital contemporary culture at the Superior School of Arts and Design at Saint-Etienne. In 2008 he was appointed first visiting professor in economics at the National Superior School of Architecture (Paris-Malaquais). He has been running the quarterly Multitudes since its foundation. He also teaches in Sevilla and in Shanghai (UTSEUS).
(picture from Jon Solomon)
The multiple interactions that underlie complex situations are poorly understood by the market approach. For economists they should represent the submerged portion of an iceberg that is much larger than it appears. Externalities are the visible manifestation of untapped potential and herald rich seams of value that have bubbled just under the firmament of human interaction since the dawn of the digital age. Make no mistake, at the level of individual enterprise as well as the wider economy, externalities will occupy a central role for the foreseeable future.
Les interactions multiples qui caractérisent les situations complexes ne sont que très imparfaitement appréhendées par le marché. Loin de concerner des situations limites, elles constituent la partie immergée de l'iceberg de l'économie. Les externalités recèlent les gisements de valeur de l'interactivité humaine sans commune mesure avec ce que le capitalisme a exploité jusqu'à l'ère du numérique. Au niveau macroéconomique, comme à celui de l'entreprise, les externalités occupent désormais une place centrale.